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船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項

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  內容提示:船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項 The requirements and precautions of lifebuoys...
船舶救生圈配備及注意事項
The requirements and precautions of lifebuoys

Through the interview and ship inspection, I found that many officers did not know requirements and implement poor maintenance and inspection of life buoys on board, so I made this files, hoping to be helpful to everyone.
在面試和船舶檢查中,發現很多駕駛員對簡單的救生圈的要求和檢查做的不好,所以做了這個總結,希望對大家有所幫助。

First, let’slook through the international conventions, then could understand clearly.
首先,先抄公約吧,公約看完一般就清楚了 

1.Requirements of LSA:
 .1Have an outer diameter of not more than 800 mm and an inner diameter of not less than 400mm;
具有不大于 800mm 的外徑及不少于 400mm 的內徑;

 .2 Be constructed of inherently buoyant material; it  shall  not  depend upon rushes, cork shavings or granulated cork, any other loose granulated material or any air compartment which depends on inflation for buoyancy;
采用自然浮力材料制成;其浮力應不得依靠燈心草、軟木刨片或軟木粒,任何其他松散的粒狀材料或任何依靠充氣的空氣室; 

  .3 In general, should have a mass of not less than 2.5kg;
通常應具有不少于 2.5kg 的質量;

if it is intended to operate the quick release arrangement provided for the self-activated smoke signals and self-igniting lights, have a mass of not less than 4 KG.
如救生圈配有自發煙霧信號及自亮燈裝置,用于迅速拋投,則應具有不少于 4kg 的質量;

be provided with a quick-release arrangement that will automatically release and activate the signal and associated self-igniting light connected to a lifebuoy having a mass of not more than 4 kg.
配備一迅速拋投裝置,該裝置將自動投放和啟動信號及相關的與救生圈相連的自亮燈,其質量不超過 4kg。

注:這兩個 4KG 的重量可能會有人混淆, 第一個指的是救生圈本體的重量;第二個是其連接的投放裝置及裝備的重量。

  .4 Be fitted with a grabline not less than 9.5 mm in diameter and not less than 4 times the outside diameter of the body of the buoy in length. The grabline shall be secured at four equidistant points around the circumference of the buoy to form four equalloops.
設有直徑不少于 9.5mm 及長度不少于救生圈體外直徑4倍的把手索1根。把手索應沿救生圈的圓周,系牢在 4 個等距點上,形成 4 個等長的索環。

  .5  Buoyant lifelines required by regulation III/7.1.2shall:
可浮救生索應:
  1)  benon-kinking; 不打紐結;
  2)  haveadiameter of not lessthan8mm;直徑不少于 8mm;
Notice:Some ships use the floating rope of lifeboat directly, the diameter may be not enough, because the lifeboat float rope requirement " have the length of not less than 30m float lifeline " did not mention thediameter requirement. Should make sure the difference between the lines. 
有的船舶的浮索直接采用救生艇的,直徑可能達不到要求,因為救生艇浮索要求 ”系有長度不小于 30m 浮索的可浮救生環 2 個”并沒有提到直徑要求。要弄清楚繩索的區別。 
  3) have abreakingstrengthofnot lessthan5kN. 破斷強度不少于 5kN。
船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項

2. Requirements of SOLAS:
      Cargo ships shall carry not less than the number of lifebuoys
船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項
      .1 At least one lifebuoy on each side of the ship shall be fitted with a buoyant lifeline complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.1.4 of the Part B: Code equal in length to not less than twice the height at which it is stowed above the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, or 30 m, whichever is thegreater.
船舶每舷至少有1個救生圈應裝有符合規則 2.1.4要求的可浮救生索,其長度不少于其存放處在最輕載航行水線以上高度的 2倍,或30m,取較大者。
    .2   Not less than one half of the total number of lifebuoys shall be provided with lifebuoy self-igniting lights complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.1.2 of the Code; not less than two of these shall also be provided with lifebuoy self-activating smoke signals complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.1.3 of the Code and be capable of quick release from the navigation bridge; lifebuoys with lights and those with lights and smoke signals shall be equally distributed on both sides of the ship and shall not be the lifebuoys provided with lifelines in compliance with the requirements of paragraph1.2.
不少于總數一半的救生圈應設有符合規則 2.1.2 要求的自亮燈;這些救生圈中不少于 2 個還應設有符合規則 2.1.3 要求的自發煙霧信號,并應能自駕駛室迅速拋投;設有自亮燈的救生圈和設有自亮燈及自發煙霧信號的救生圈,應均等地分布在船舶兩舷,這類救生圈不應是按本條 1.2 要求的裝有救生索的救生圈。

Self-igniting lights for lifebuoys on tankers required by regulation 7.1.3 shall be of an electric battery type.
液貨船自亮燈應用電池(此電池指的是干電池)

Notice 注意: 
Self-lighting can be a combination of light and smoke; It could  be a separate light + a separate smoke signal
自亮燈可以是燈和煙霧的組合體;也可以是單獨的燈+單獨的煙霧信號
Pay attention to the mounting position. Do not install outside to affect the maximum shipwidth
注意安裝位置,不應裝置在外邊,影響最大船舶寬度,PSCO 發現會記錄缺陷。如下圖(2)

船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項
(1)right

船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項
(2)wrong
 
 3) It should not cause a failure to release quickly, as shown in thefigure
不應導致無法快速釋放,如圖

船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項

原因:分析此輪原來配備應是單獨燈+單獨煙霧信號,存放在圈外側的鐵盒內,后來供應了圖中的組合信號,鐵盒放不下,安裝在后部,但是安裝方向導致無法達到快速釋放的目的。 

4.)(USCG 要求):(2002 年7 月8 日)因在美國港口發生煙霧信號誤操作引起爆炸導致死亡的事故,因此美國港口要求:
① 議采用防爆型的第三代煙霧信號代替原煙霧信號;
② 無論船上配備的是第二或第三代煙霧信號,在維修保養或移動煙霧信號及其附屬裝置時,均需將原來用于防止運輸工過程中誤點燃的安全銷插回。當煙霧信號處于正常存放狀態時,才將該安全銷取去,并需將此安全銷存放于煙霧信號和支架附近,以便移動煙霧信號時隨時可用。
③ 如果船上繼續使用第二代煙霧信號,必須在煙霧信號附近一個顯著位置張貼警示標志,警告如果沒有插回安全銷不得移動煙霧信號。另外在煙霧信號的殼體也需標示“一旦發生誤點燃,不得重新將啟動機械裝置復位,否則將爆炸”等內容。以上警告語可采用船員的工作語言

  .3 Each lifebuoy shall be marked in block capitals of the Roman  alphabet with the name and port of registry of the ship on which it is carried
每個救生圈應以粗體羅馬大寫字母標明其所屬船名和船籍港。

 .4  So distributed as to be readily available on both sides of the ship and as far as practicable on all open decks extending to the ship’s side; at least one shall be placed in the vicinity of the stern; and so stowed as to be capable of being rapidly cast loose, and not permanently secured in anyway.
應分布在船舶兩舷容易拿到之處,并在可行范圍內,分布在所有延伸到船舷的露天甲板上;至少有 1 個應放在船尾附近;和其存放應能迅速取下,且不應以任何方式使其永久系牢

 .5   Pilot embarkation 引航員登乘處
MSC.1/Circ.1618通函中給出了統一解釋,明確了:登離船設備配備的救生圈不計算在SOLAS第III章22.1.1或者III章32.1要求的救生圈最小數量和分布中

  7.1.2   alifebuoyequipped withaself-ignitinglight; 帶有自亮燈的救生圈;
  7.1.3   aheavingline.  拋纜繩。

 NOTICE 注意:
 The line is HEAVING LINE, is not the float line required by LSA, should not be attached to the life buoy, (as I thought that the rope maybe used to pull the items carried by the pilot)
此處的繩索是HEAVING LINE, 不是要求的浮索,不要系固在救生圈上,(分析其作用應該是用來吊拉引水員攜帶的物品)

注意MSC.1/Circ.1331要求和SOLAS不同
目前雖非強制要求,為了避免PSCO不同理解,建議配備

3.3 Lifebuoy A lifebuoy equipped with a self-igniting light and a buoyant lifeline should be available for immediate use in the vicinity of the embarkation and disembarkation arrangement when in use.
適用于2010年1月1日及以后建造對的船舶,或2010年1月1日之后更換登離船設施的所有船舶
 
該救生圈處于存放狀態時,除非能排除該救生圈在棄船時被逃生者誤用的可能,救生浮索不應同該救生圈保持連接,僅在應急使用時由使用者進行連接。在登離船設施未使用時,不要放在登離船設備的附近位置上,僅在船舶靠港停泊登離船設施使用時,將其取出放在登離船設施附近以供應急使用。 

3.  OTHERS其他
  .1  There are two kinds of battery: seawater battery and dry battery. The dry battery should be replaced once a year according to the product instructions
救生圈自亮燈有海水電池型和干電池型兩種.干電池按產品說明應一年更換一次電池。

 .2  The surface of the life buoy should be orange-red without colordifferent
救生圈外表應為橙紅色,且無色差

 .3 The outer surface of the life buoy should be free from concave-convex or cracking
救生圈外表面應無凹凸,無開裂

 .4   Four equally spaced positions along the circumference of the life buoy should be surrounded by reverse reflector tape of  a 50mmwidth
沿救生圈周長四個相等間隔位置應環繞貼有 50mm 寬度的逆向反光帶

船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項

  .5  Marked應標明其:
      .Type 型號、
      .Manufacture 制造廠名、
      .Serial No 制造編號、
      .Date制造年月及
      .Mark of approval authority 檢驗單位的標志。
船舶救生圈配備要求及注意事項

4.   Commondefects常見缺陷
 .1   The number and arrangement of life buoys are inconsistent with the Life Saving EquipmentArrangement
救生圈配備數量、布置與《救生設備布置圖》不一致

 .2    The arrangement, installation and dead weight of the life buoy with self-igniting smoke signal and self-igniting light on both wings of the bridge cannot meet the requirement of quick- releasefunction.
駕駛室兩翼側帶自發煙霧信號和自亮燈組合的救生圈,其布置、安裝和自重達不到迅速釋放并且直接掉落到舷外的要求

 .3 The shell and reflector of life buoy are aging and cracked, and the handle cable is aging andbreaking
救生圈外殼、反光帶老化開裂,把手索老化、斷裂

 .4   Insufficient number of life buoys with self-igniting lights and floating life line; failure of self-ignitinglights
帶自亮燈、可浮救生索救生圈數量不足,自亮燈失效或故障

 .5   The name, port of registry are not marked or not clearlymarked
救生圈上船名、船籍港未標識或標識不清

 .6   To be permanently fastened in anyway
以任何方式永久系牢

 .7   Self-igniting lights for lifebuoys on tankers using seawaterbatteries
液貨船上使用海水電池的自亮燈

作者:郭船長 來源:船舶管理信息平臺

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